A Comprehensive Review of Secondary Carbon Bio-Carriers for Application in Metallurgical Processes: Utilization of Torrefied Biomass in Steel Production

Lina Kieush, Johannes Rieger, Johannes Schenk, Carlo Brondi, Davide Rovelli, Thomas Echterhof, Filippo Cirilli, Christoph M. Thaler, Nils Jaeger, Delphine Snaet, Klaus Peters, Valentina Colla

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftÜbersichtsartikelBegutachtung


This review aims to show the significance of the use of secondary carbon bio-carriers for iron and steel production. The term ‘secondary carbon bio-carriers’ in this review paper refers to biomass, torrefied biomass, biochar, charcoal, or biocoke. The main focus is on torrefied biomass, which can act as a carbon source for partial or complete replacement of fossil fuel in various metallurgical processes. The material requirements for the use of secondary carbon bio-carriers in different metallurgical processes are systematized, and pathways for the use of secondary carbon bio-carriers in four main routes of steel production are described; namely, blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace (BF/BOF), melting of scrap in electric arc furnace (scrap/EAF), direct reduced iron/electric arc furnace (DRI/EAF), and smelting reduction/basic oxygen furnace (SR/BOF). In addition, there is also a focus on the use of secondary carbon bio-carriers in a submerged arc furnace (SAF) for ferroalloy production. The issue of using secondary carbon bio-carriers is specific and individual, depending on the chosen process. However, the most promising ways to use secondary carbon bio-carriers are determined in scrap/EAF, DRI/EAF, SR/BOF, and SAF. Finally, the main priority of future research is the establishment of optimal parameters, material quantities, and qualities for using secondary carbon bio-carriers in metallurgical processes.
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 23 Nov. 2022

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