Powder metallurgical (PM) steels are characterised by a very high cleanness level. Single mesoscopic inclusions can nevertheless induce material failure under the extreme exposed stresses in the final product. Extensive knowledge about the cleanness of these steels is therefore essential. Various methods for inclusion analyses are available, providing different information about the non-metallic inclusion population present in the steel matrix. Several state-of-the-art methods of inclusion analysis are compared, considering morphological parameters and chemical composition of the detected inclusions as well as the required time effort and statistics behind the specific method. Tests were carried out with a standard PM steel HS6-5-3C. Combined with chemical extraction, automated SEM/EDS measurements enable a clear description of the microscopic cleanness level. Statistical analyses using the extreme value theory allowed the prediction of the maximum inclusion size in the investigated samples.
Bibliographische NotizFunding Information:
The financial support by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour and Economy, the Austrian National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development (Österreichische Nationalstiftung für Forschung, Technologie und Entwicklung) and the Christian Doppler Research Association is gratefully acknowledged.
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.