Optimization of the Two- and Three-DimensionalCharacterization of Rare Earth-Traced Deoxidation Products

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelForschungBegutachtung


Tracing by means of the light rare earths (REs), particularly La and Ce, is a state-of-the-art method used to track deoxidation products during the steelmakingprocess. Traced heterogeneous multiphase inclusions are analyzed usingscanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS)to perform a 2D characterization. The sequential chemical extraction technique isimplemented for a 3D investigation to determine traced particles’actual sizes andshapes. The automated SEM/EDS measurement must be optimized since REoxides appear brighter in the backscattered electron images due to their highatomic numbers. Therefore, two grayscales are implemented for the detection ofRE-containing multiphase inclusions. Within this technique, individual RE-tracedheterogeneous nonmetallic inclusions (NMIs) are counted as separate particles.Thus, the measured NMIs must be recombined, which is achieved using a self-developed MATLAB tool. The extracted particles are also analyzed by automatedand manual SEM/EDS measurements to determine the 3D morphologies andsizes of traced NMIs
Seiten (von - bis)1-12
Fachzeitschrift Advanced engineering materials
Ausgabenummer??? Stand: 21. April 2023
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Feb. 2023

Bibliographische Notiz

Funding Information:
The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labor and Economy, the National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development, and the Christian Doppler Research Association.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Advanced Engineering Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • Non-metallic inclusions
  • steel cleanness
  • rare-earth elements
  • deoxidation
  • characterization methods
  • automated SEM/EDS
  • chemical extraction

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