3D-printed alumina-based ceramics with spatially resolved porosity

Serkan Nohut, Josef Schlacher, Irina Kraleva, Martin Schwentenwein, Raul Bermejo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


The interest on porous ceramics has increased in the last years with the developments in additive manufacturing methods, enabling design of components with complex geometries for membranes, filters, catalytic converters, or biostructures. In this study, porous alumina samples were produced by using different concentrations of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as pore-forming agent (PFA) in a photocurable slurry via vat photopolymerization (VPP). The effect of layer thickness, PMMA particle size, and sintering temperature on the mechanical properties and microstructural features of the samples was investigated as a function of PMMA concentration. It is shown that the mechanical properties of 3D-printed porous alumina are comparable with those fabricated by conventional processes. The Young modulus, fracture toughness as well as the biaxial strength decreased with increasing weight concentration of PFA (resulting in an increased total porosity). Specially using smaller PMMA particles has a positive effect, resulting in higher Young's modulus as well as fracture toughness. The feasibility of VPP for fabricating novel parts with more complex porosity regions is explored by printing multi-material samples and porosity-graded architectures. The counterbalance effect between porosity and mechanical properties may be optimized by tailoring material composition and processing parameters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-104
Number of pages16
JournalInternational journal of applied ceramic technology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Lithoz Gmbh and The Authors. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Ceramics Society.


  • additive manufacturing
  • alumina
  • mechanical properties
  • pores/porosity
  • Vat photopolymerization

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