3D Printing of Covalent Adaptable Networks: Overview, Applications and Future Prospects

Viranchika Bijalwan, Sravendra Rana, Harish K. Singh, Gun Jin Yun, Muhammad Jamil, Sandra Schlögl

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


3D printing, a rapidly growing material processing technique has found its broad applications in construction, automobiles, robotics, domestic usage and in biomedical sectors due to its ability to fabricate the desirable objects from scratch. However, due to the non-recyclable and non-reprocessable nature of most printed structures, the discarded 3D printed objects generate wastes after damage or use. Covalent Adaptable Networks (CANs) are polymeric networks those can change their network topology by exchanging their functionalities under external stimuli, thus, rendering the printed objects recyclable, therefore helpful in terms of reducing waste. The fabricated objects may also be endowed with properties such as self-healing, shape-memory, enhanced mechanical strength, degradability, and reprintability. The present article covers different methods utilized for 3D printing of the polymers having CANs, including a detailed insight to present trends and technologies in the field. In addition, their applications, particularly in soft robotics and biomedical fields have been discussed. Future perspectives regarding the challenges, new potential applications as well as importance of continuous advancements in the field of 3D printing of CANs have also been discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages44
JournalPolymer reviews
Issue number??? Stand: 23.Oktober 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright: © 2023 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • 3D printing
  • Covalent adaptable network
  • dynamic covalent chemistry
  • recycling
  • self-healing

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