4D optimization of intra-urban cut-and-cover method

Kristoph Mattner

Research output: ThesisMaster's Thesis


The cut-and-cover method is a widely known and often used construction method that limits the time a construction pit is open to the surface. It can be used for different civil engineering construction projects in both densely populated and rural areas. In intra-urban areas it is often the only option to construct an underground building due to limited space, adjacent buildings and negatively affected third parties. Thus, shortening its construction time even further is of great importance to employers, construction companies and those affected by the construction pit. This thesis presents a four-dimensional simulation approach that models, simulates and visualizes the construction of an underground building using the cut-and-cover method. The approach is based on a simple framework using software packages already used in the construction industries, allowing an easy and fast replication of the simulation. Several iterative optimizations are performed, identifying the key aspects that affect the construction time, thereby reducing the total construction duration by up to 14 %. Beside the temporal improvement, additional use-cases of the four-dimensional simulation are presented. Detailed possibilities to expand the analysis are described, providing an overview of data necessary to achieve improvements regarding construction time, use of labor and material and costs within one simulation.
Translated title of the contribution4D Optimierung der innerstädtischen Deckelbauweise
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Montanuniversität
  • Weizenegger, Michael, Supervisor (external), External person
  • Villeneuve, Marlene, Supervisor (internal)
Award date8 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

embargoed until 28-02-2027


  • cut-and-cover method
  • 4D simulation
  • building information modeling
  • underground construction

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