The additive manufacturing (AM) of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) microarchitectures with sub-micrometer precision via two-photon lithography (TPL), utilizing custom photoresin containing zirconium and yttrium monomers is investigated. YSZ 3D microarchitectures can be formed at low temperatures (600 °C). The low-temperature phase stabilization of ZrO 2 doped with Y 2O 3 demonstrates that doping ZrO 2 with ≈ 10 mol% Y 2O 3 stabilizes the c-ZrO 2 phase. The approach does not utilize YSZ particles as additives. Instead, the crystallization of the YSZ phase is initiated after printing, i.e., during thermal processing in the air at 600 °C – 1200 °C for one and two hours. The YSZ microarchitectures are characterized in detail. This includes understanding the role of defect chemistry, which has been overlooked in TPL-enabled micro-ceramics. Upon UV excitation, defect-related yellowish-green emission is observed from YSZ microarchitectures associated with intrinsic and extrinsic centers, correlated with the charge compensation due to Y 3+ doping. The mechanical properties of the microarchitectures are assessed with manufactured micropillars. Micropillar compression yields the intrinsic mechanical strength of YSZ. The highest strength is observed for micropillars annealed at 600 °C, and this characteristic decreased with an increase in the annealing temperature. The deformation behavior gradually changes from ductile to brittle-like, correlating with the Hall–Petch strengthening mechanism.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s)
- 3D printing
- Additive manufacturing
- Yttria-stabilized zirconia