Additive manufacturing of magnesium alloy using uniform droplet spraying: modeling of microstructure evolution

Syed Murtaza Jaffar, Nikolaos Kostoglou, Hiroki Fukuda, Claus Rebholz, Teiichi Ando, Yiliang Liao, Charalabos C. Doumanidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Abstract: In this study a material model is developed to predict the solidification microstructure of an additive-manufactured, fully dense magnesium (Mg) alloy using uniform droplet spraying (UDS). Specifically, the crystallite size distribution is simulated by a solidification model, consisting of a nucleation/fragmentation and a constrained growth description, calibrated via microstructural data from a single droplet splat. This is enabled by a semi-analytical thermal modeling framework, based on the superposition of moving Green’s and Rosenthal functions for the temperature field generated by a Gaussian source distribution. The model is implemented for layered ellipsoidal deposit sections on planar substrates by multi-pass spraying, and its predictions are validated against measured crystal sizes by image analysis of experimental micrographs of a Mg 97ZnY 2 alloy, to an error margin of ± 15%. The computationally efficient simulation provides insights to the deposit microstructure, and is intended as a process observer in a closed-loop, adaptive control scheme based on infrared temperature measurements. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-403
Number of pages13
JournalMRS Advances
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Materials Research Society.


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Mg
  • Microstructure
  • Modeling
  • Spray deposition

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