Characterization of Rare-Earth-Elements-Traced Non-Metallic Inclusions by Different Methods

Kathrin Thiele, Sergiu Ilie, Roman Rössler, Susanne Katharina Michelic

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


The addition of rare earth elements (REE) to the melt is one option to trace non-metallic inclusions (NMI) over the steelmaking
process. For cleanness characterization, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) is the
predominant method used to determine traced NMIs. Since rare earth elements appear brighter than the steel matrix in the
image of the backscatter electron detector, the analyzing and evaluation process has to be improved. Two greyscales for the
automated SEM/EDS measurement are applied; evaluation of traced NMIs is performed by a self-developed Matlab tool.
Furthermore, different extraction techniques are used to investigate the detailed morphology of NMIs. Additionally, the
extracted NMIs on the filter residue are analyzed by manual and automated SEM/EDS measurements, demonstrating no
dissolution of REE-traced NMI parts during the extraction and filtration process. Finally, the significance and the potential of
automated SEM/EDS measurements of extracted inclusions on a filter are assessed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings ICS 2022, 8th International Congress on Science and Technology of Steelmaking
PublisherAssociation for Iron and Steel Technology
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022
Event8th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking (ICS) - Montreal, Canada
Duration: 2 Aug 20224 Aug 2022


Conference8th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking (ICS)
Abbreviated titleICS

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