The undercooling capacity of a superalloy is an essential physical property to determine its single-crystal (SC) castability, because stray grains (SGs) will be formed if the geometrical undercooling established at the platform extremities exceeds the undercooling capacity of the applied alloy. In the present work, both the undercooling capacity of eight Ni-based superalloys and their SC castability were experimentally investigated. The liquidus temperature, the critical temperature for grain nucleation, and hence the undercooling capacities of the investigated alloys were evaluated based on the temperature evolution during the heating and cooling processes. The current experimental study revealed a significant difference in undercooling capacity for the superalloys. In the production of SC blade castings, the tendency to form SG defects was found to be highly related to the alloy’s undercooling capacity. The alloys having a low undercooling capacity of around 10 K were very prone to the formation of SGs. In comparison, the alloys with a moderate undercooling capacity from 20 K to 30 K could be easily cast into SC blades without SGs, exhibiting the best SC castability. Other factors influencing the SG formation were also analyzed. As a result, a criterion for the formation of geometry-related SG defects was proposed, in which the influence of the alloy undercooling capacity, casting geometry, and solidification condition are involved.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the Shenzhen Peacock Plan (KQTD2015032716463668) and by the Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program (607264877417).
Publisher Copyright: © 2022 by the authors.
- blade casting
- single crystal
- stray grain
- undercooling capacity