Creep strain recovery of an in situ spinel-forming refractory castable under loading/unloading compressive creep conditions

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Creep strain recovery after unloading has been well studied for metals and certain ceramic composites; however, it has not yet been investigated for ordinary ceramic refractories applied in industrial furnaces. The present study explores the question whether creep strain recovery can be observed in ordinary ceramic refractories to justify its consideration in the design of such refractories and refractory linings. To this end, the dependence of creep strain recovery on different loading conditions was investigated for a high-alumina in situ spinel-forming castable, commonly used as refractory lining of steel ladles in secondary steel metallurgy. Several loading/unloading compressive creep tests were performed at 1300 °C for different loading histories. Creep strain recovery was observed to occur and it was significantly affected by the holding time and degree of unloading. A longer holding time for the loading period was found to increase the internal stress, which is the driving force for creep strain recovery. In addition, the findings indicate that a higher excess of internal stress over external stress after unloading induces higher strain recovery.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25225-25231
Number of pages7
JournalCeramics International
Issue number15
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 17 May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support under the scope of the COMET program within the K2 Center “ Integrated Computational Material, Process and Product Engineering (IC-MPPE) " (Project No 859480). This program is supported by the Austrian Federal Ministries for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT) and for Digital and Economic Affairs (BMDW) , represented by the Austrian research funding association (FFG) , and the federal states of Styria, Upper Austria and Tyrol.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors


  • Creep strain recovery
  • In situ spinel-forming castable
  • Internal stress
  • Refractory

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