Different Approaches to Trace the Source of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Improvement of steel cleanness requires detailed knowledge about the formation of non-metallic inclusions. Tracing inclusions
and potential sources is an effective tool for studying inclusion evolution. In the paper, two tracing approaches are evaluated.
First, classical tracer experiments are performed, where rare earth elements (REE) like La or Ce are deliberately added to the
melt on an industrial scale to mark the inclusions directly. Second, the natural REE multi-element fingerprint of the inclusions
is compared to the REE multi-element pattern of potential sources such as alloying and auxiliary materials. These REE
distributions profiles are interpreted by normalizing the REE fractions to reference values. REE contents are analyzed by
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in all cases. Both approaches are applied to track the source of clogged material
in the submerged entry nozzle from Ti-ULC steel production. Results show a clear connection between inclusions resulting
from deoxidation and the clogged layer in the SEN.
Translated title of the contributionVerschiedene Ansätze zur Rückverfolgung der Quelle nichtmetallischer Einschlüsse im Stahl
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings ICS 2022, 8th International Congress on Science and Technology of Steelmaking
PublisherAssociation for Iron and Steel Technology
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022
Event8th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking (ICS) - Montreal, Canada
Duration: 2 Aug 20224 Aug 2022


Conference8th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking (ICS)
Abbreviated titleICS


  • clogging
  • Non-metallic Inclusion
  • Rare Earth Elements
  • Tracer
  • rare earth fingerprint

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