Different Approaches to Trace the Source of Non-Metallic Inclusions in Steel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Improvement of steel cleanness requires detailed knowledge about the formation of non-metallic inclusions. Tracing inclusions
and potential sources is an effective tool for studying inclusion evolution. In the paper, two tracing approaches are evaluated.
First, classical tracer experiments are performed, where rare earth elements (REE) like La or Ce are deliberately added to the
melt on an industrial scale to mark the inclusions directly. Second, the natural REE multi-element fingerprint of the inclusions
is compared to the REE multi-element pattern of potential sources such as alloying and auxiliary materials. These REE
distributions profiles are interpreted by normalizing the REE fractions to reference values. REE contents are analyzed by
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in all cases. Both approaches are applied to track the source of clogged material
in the submerged entry nozzle from Ti-ULC steel production. Results show a clear connection between inclusions resulting
from deoxidation and the clogged layer in the SEN.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAISTech 2023 - Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2023
EventAISTech 2023 - Huntington Place, Detroit, United States
Duration: 8 May 202311 May 2023


ConferenceAISTech 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States

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