Diffusion Bonding of High-Alloyed Tool Steels with Maraging and Precipitation Hardening Steels

Michael Göbl, Harald Eder, Aude Prestl, Ingo Siller, Ronald Schnitzer

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    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Steel composites for application as protective plates were produced via diffusion bonding. Cold work tool steels were combined with a precipitation hardening steel or a maraging steel using a deformation dilatometer and a vacuum furnace at 1150 C for 8 h in total. Subsequently, a heat treatment was applied to achieve the final mechanical properties. The microstructure of the interface was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and hardness measurements. The results are compared with a simulation of the diffusion of elements performed by MatCalc. Both composites achieve high hardness near the surface of the cold work tool steels, which can have a positive effect on the destruction of projectiles on impact. The influence of carbon diffusion can be observed up to a depth of 3 mm from the interface. As a result of carbon diffusion, soft zones are formed on both sides of the interface, which can be attributed to decarburization, phase transformation and carbide formation. The tough back layer is designed to absorb the remaining energy of the projectile. The combination of a hard front layer and a tough rear layer provides an optimal combination of materials against ballistic threats.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1622
    Pages (from-to)1-11
    Number of pages11
    JournalMetals : open access journal
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2020


    • cold work tool steels
    • diffusion bonding
    • interface diffusion
    • maraging steels
    • steel composite

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