Gel Point Determination in Resin Transfer Molding Process with Fiber Bragg Grating Inscribed in Side-Hole Elliptical Core Optical Fiber

Karol Wachtarczyk, Marcel Bender, Ewald Fauster, Ralf Schledjewski, Paweł Gąsior, Jerzy Kaleta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Material as well as process variations in the composites industry are reasons to develop methods for in-line monitoring, which would increase reproducibility of the manufacturing process and the final composite products. Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) have shown to be useful for monitoring liquid-composite molding processes, e.g., in terms of online gel point detection. Existing works however, focus on in-plane strain measurements while out-of-plane residual strain prevails. In order to measure out-of-plane strain, FBG inscribed in highly birefringent fiber (HB FBG) can be used. The purpose of this research is the cure stage detection with (a) FBG inscribed in single mode and (b) FBG inscribed in highly-birefringent side-hole fiber in comparison to the reference gel point detected with an in-mold DC sensor. Results reveal that the curing process is better traceable with HB FBG than with regular FBG. Thus, the use of HB FBG can be a good method for the gel point estimation in the RTM process.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6497
Number of pages14
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 19 Sept 2022


  • fiber optic sensors
  • Fiber Bragg Grating
  • high birefringent fibers
  • side-hole optical fiber
  • Resin transfer molding (RTM)
  • Cure monitoring
  • gel point estimation
  • residual stress

Cite this