Aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice-nucleating particles (INPs), influencing cloud properties. In particular, INPs show a variety of different and complex mechanisms when interacting with water during the freezing process. To gain a fundamental understanding of the heterogeneous freezing mechanisms, studies with proxies for atmospheric INPs must be performed. Graphene and its derivatives offer suitable model systems for soot particles, which are ubiquitous aerosols in the atmosphere. In this work, we present an investigation of the ice nucleation activity (INA) of different types of graphene and graphene oxides. Immersion droplet freezing experiments as well as additional analytical analyses, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, were performed. We show within a group of samples that a highly ordered graphene lattice (Raman G band intensity >50%) can support ice nucleation more effectively than a lowly ordered graphene lattice (Raman G band intensity
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