Influence of the Infill Orientation on the Properties of Zirconia Parts Produced by Fused Filament Fabrication

Santiago Cano Cano, Tanja Lube, Philipp Huber, Alberto Gallego, Juan Alfonso Naranjo, Cristina Berges, Stephan Schuschnigg, Gemma Herranz, Christian Kukla, Clemens Holzer, Joamin Gonzalez-Gutierrez

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11 Citations (Scopus)


The fused filament fabrication (FFF) of ceramics enables the additive manufacturing of components with complex geometries for many applications like tooling or prototyping. Nevertheless, due to the many factors involved in the process, it is difficult to separate the effect of the different parameters on the final properties of the FFF parts, which hinders the expansion of the technology. In this paper, the effect of the fill pattern used during FFF on the defects and the mechanical properties of zirconia components is evaluated. The zirconia-filled filaments were produced from scratch, characterized by different methods and used in the FFF of bending bars with infill orientations of 0°, ±45° and 90° with respect to the longest dimension of the specimens. Three-point bending tests were conducted on the specimens with the side in contact with the build platform under tensile loads. Next, the defects were identified with cuts in different sections. During the shaping by FFF, pores appeared inside the extruded roads due to binder degradation and or moisture evaporation. The changes in the fill pattern resulted in different types of porosity and defects in the first layer, with the latter leading to earlier fracture of the components. Due to these variations, the specimens with the 0° infill orientation had the lowest porosity and the highest bending strength, followed by the specimens with ±45° infill orientation and finally by those with 90ffi infill orientation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3158
Number of pages19
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright: © 2020 by the authors.


  • fused filament fabrication
  • zirconia
  • material extrusion
  • infill orientation
  • raster orientation
  • fill pattern
  • rheology
  • bending strength
  • printing defects

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