Investigation of Melting Behavior and Viscosity of Slags from Secondary Ferromanganese Production

David Scheiblehner, Christoph Sagadin, Stefan Luidold, Helmut Antrekowitsch, Dieter Offenthaler

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Viscosity and melting behavior are two of the most important properties of industrial slags as they directly impact the yield of metallurgical processes. Too high fluidity may cause losses during tapping or infiltration of refractory while too viscous liquids can lead to problems regarding the smelting of charged material or metal inclusions. This paper comprises the determination of melting behavior and viscosity of slags as functions of their composition. Therefore, 19 mixtures of different oxides have been prepared and melted by means of an induction furnace. An analysis of the resulting slags in a hot stage microscope and the computation of the corresponding viscosities allow an evaluation of the most important parameters. Significant variations of viscosity and characteristic temperatures can be measured as functions of the content of manganese oxide and the ratio between calcium oxide and silicon dioxide, respectively, besides a strong temperature dependency and a major influence of network-forming oxides.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFurnace Tapping, 2022
EditorsJoalet D. Steenkamp, Dean Gregurek, Quinn G. Reynolds, Gerardo Alvear Flores, Hugo Joubert, Phillip J. Mackey
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9783030925437
Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2022
EventFurnace Tapping held at the TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition, 2022 - Anaheim, United States
Duration: 27 Feb 20223 Mar 2022

Publication series

NameMinerals, Metals and Materials Series
ISSN (Print)2367-1181
ISSN (Electronic)2367-1696


ConferenceFurnace Tapping held at the TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition, 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.


  • Melting behavior
  • Pyrometallurgy
  • Slags
  • Viscosity

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