As a consequence of human activities, the concentration of all natural greenhouse gases, especially CO2, constantly increases. Therefore, the Kyoto-Protocol was accepted at the climate convention in December 1997. The Kyoto-Protocol foresees a reduction of greenhouse gases of at least 5 % in the timeframe of 2008 to 2012 compared to the basis year 1990. The EU has agreed to a reduction of at least 8 % (Austria 13 %). In addition to setting reduction targets for the individual countries, so-called flexible mechanisms are quoted which shall contribute in a cost efficient way to reach the targets (Emission Trading, Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation). For the industry the Kyoto-Protocol may have different impacts. The cement industry with high process CO2 emissions is one of the most affected sectors, and the requirements could lead to a life threatening situation. The characteristics of cement production make it difficult to deliver significant contributions to achieve the global targets for reducing CO2 emissions. Basically, there are three possibilities to reduce CO2 emissions related to cement production, which are discussed in this thesis: increasing the proportion of secondary materials in the cement composition, replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels, specifically biomass, and increasing energy efficiency. Additionally, the capture and storage of CO2 becomes increasingly important as an option within the scope of climate strategy. Currently, two options regarding the storage of captured CO2 are discussed: the storage in the ocean or in geological reservoirs. The geological storage is seen as a highly promising possibility for reducing CO2 emissions in the near future.
|Translated title of the contribution||Kyoto-Protocol: the provisions of the "Kyoto-Protocol" and their effects on the profitability of the cement industry|
|Publication status||Published - 25 Jun 2008|