Lösungskonzepte für die Probenahme, Probenaufbereitung und Analytik von grobstückigen und heterogenen festen Abfällen

Translated title of the contribution: Proposed solutions for sampling, sample preparation and analysis of coarse and heterogeneous solid wastes

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

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Setting limit values for different parameters to confirm legal compliance with laws is an important and essential subject in waste management. Some arguments for setting limit values are control of emissions, defining hazard characteristics, designing proper disposal routes and obtaining legal certainty. Stipulating limit values requires their verification, however, and this needs appropriate analytic procedures to be applied. Austria as well as the European Union (EU) have defined quite a number of laws, regulations or directives that directly stipulate procedures for sampling, sample preparation and analysis or refer to technical guidelines (i. e. standards) to be applied. When the waste to be examined is coarse and heterogeneous, however, such procedures frequently cannot be applied nor observed in practical use because of the abundant mass of the samples. Another problem is impractical or unavailable analytical methods for measuring parameters that may be relevant for setting limit values. Moreover, standardised methods may not at all be applicable to more sophisticated analytical subjects. Numerous problems have thus arisen lately to industrial research partners coming from different waste management areas. They have been addressed by this Thesis and academically sound solutions for the respective analytical problems have been elaborated and proposed. As for sampling, an easy and quick but yet representative sampling method called 'Bale Sampling' has been developed to be applied to waste fractions like paper, plastics, textiles or any mixtures of these. Another issue was the statutory quality control in cement plants for HotDisc Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) whose sample preparation meant a major obstacle to the subsequent analysis due to the high mass through-put of the samples. A smart solution is proposed, using a semi-automatic sample processing unit. As for analysing cases of television and computer screens, a portable X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF) instrument has been validated and established for a fast on-site analysis of brominated flame retardants (PBB, PBDE). There had been no suitable way before how to monitor this parameter. Another research topic was the determination of total concentration for various elements for which limit values are stipulated in most regulations. With regard to electric furnace slag, these present conventional limit values do not allow to tell much about environmental risks, however. Important basic information required for improving the mechanical processing of workshop waste and substitute fuels is provided by knowing the element species (metallic, oxidic, or other) or the way pollutants react. This Thesis proposes appropriate solutions for both cases, each including a specific adaptation of conventional analytic methods that relates to mechanical sample preparation.
Translated title of the contributionProposed solutions for sampling, sample preparation and analysis of coarse and heterogeneous solid wastes
Original languageGerman
Awarding Institution
  • Montanuniversität
  • Pomberger, Roland, Supervisor (internal)
  • Huber-Humer, Marion, Supervisor (external), External person
Award date15 Sept 2017
Place of PublicationLeoben
Publication statusPublished - 18 Sept 2017

Bibliographical note

no embargo


  • solid wastes
  • heterogeneity
  • sampling
  • sample preparation
  • analytics
  • solid recovered fuel
  • television/computer screens
  • workshop waste
  • electric arc furnace slag

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