Metallurgical Coke Production with Biomass Additives: Study of Biocoke Properties for Blast Furnace and Submerged Arc Furnace Purposes

Oleg Bazaluk, Lina Kieush, Andrii Koveria, Johannes Schenk, Andreas Pfeiffer, Heng Zheng, Vasyl Lozynskyi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Biocoke has the potential to reduce the fossil-based materials in metallurgical processes, along with mitigating anthropogenic CO2- and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing those emissions is possible by using bio-based carbon, which is CO2-neutral, as a partial replacement of fossil carbon. In this paper, the effect of adding 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 wt.% biomass pellets on the reactivity, the physicomechanical, and electrical properties of biocoke was established to assess the possibility of using it as a fuel and reducing agent for a blast furnace (BF) or as a carbon source in a submerged arc furnace (SAF). Biocoke was obtained under laboratory conditions at final coking temperatures of 950 or 1100 °C. Research results indicate that for BF purposes, 5 wt.% biomass additives are the maximum as the reactivity increases and the strength after reaction with CO2 decreases. On the other hand, biocoke’s physicomechanical and electrical properties, obtained at a carbonization temperature of 950 °C, can be considered a promising option for the SAF.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1147
Number of pages17
Journal Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: Support by the scholarship program 'Ernst Mach Grant—worldwide' (ICM-2020-00100), financed by the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research of Austria, is gratefully acknowledged. We also wish to acknowledge the Montanuniversität Leoben for the support and staff of the Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy, who assisted throughout the project. Comments by reviewers on a previous version of this paper are also acknowledged.

Funding Information:
Funding: This study was carried out as part of the project 'Belt and Road Initiative Institute for Chinese–European studies (BRIICES)' and was funded by the Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Biocoke
  • Biomass pellets
  • Coke
  • Coke reactivity index
  • Electrical resistivity
  • Ferroalloys

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