Numerical and experimental assessment of liquid metal embrittlement in externally loaded spot welds

Konstantin Manuel Prabitz, Thomas Antretter, Michael Rethmeier, Bassel El-Sari, Holger Schubert, Benjamin Hilpert, Martin Gruber, Robert Sierlinger, Werner Ecker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Zinc-based surface coatings are widely applied with high-strength steels in automotive industry. Some of these base materials show an increased brittle cracking risk during loading. It is necessary to examine electrogalvanized and uncoated samples of a high strength steel susceptible to liquid metal embrittlement during spot welding with applied external load. Therefore, a newly developed tensile test method with a simultaneously applied spot weld is conducted. A fully coupled 3D electrical, thermal, metallurgical and mechanical finite element model depicting the resistant spot welding process combined with the tensile test conducted is mandatory to correct geometric influences of the sample geometry and provides insights into the sample’s time dependent local loading. With increasing external loads, the morphology of the brittle cracks formed is affected more than the crack depth. The validated finite element model applies newly developed damage indicators to predict and explain the liquid metal embrittlement cracking onset and development as well as even ductile failure.

Original languageEnglish
JournalWelding in the world
Issue number??? Stand: 26. Februar 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Jan 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright: © 2024, The Author(s).


  • Advanced high-strength steel
  • Damage prediction
  • Finite element simulation
  • Liquid metal embrittlement
  • Resistance spot welding
  • Tensile resistance spot welding experiment

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