On the Formation Mechanism of Banded Microstructures in Electron Beam Melted Ti–48Al–2Cr–2Nb and the Design of Heat Treatments as Remedial Action

Reinhold Wartbichler, Helmut Clemens, Svea Mayer, Christian Ghibaudo, Giovanni Rizza, Manuela Galati, Luca Iuliano, Sara Biamino, Daniele Ugues

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The formation mechanism of banded microstructures of an electron beam melted engineering intermetallic Ti–48Al–2Cr–2Nb alloy, the solidification behavior, and the heat treatment response are investigated via a process parameter study. Scanning electron microscopy, hardness testing, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, thermomechanical analysis, electron backscatter diffraction, heat treatments, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium calculation, and numerical simulation were performed. All specimens show near-γ microstructures with low amounts of α 2 and traces of β o. Fabrication with an increased energy input leads to an increased Al loss due to evaporation, a lower α-transus temperature, and to a higher hardness. Banded microstructures form due to abnormal grain growth toward the bottom of original melt pools, whereas α 2 in Al-depleted zones enables a Zener pinning of the γ-grain boundaries, leading to fine-grained areas. Via numerical simulation, it is shown that increasing the energy input leads to larger maximum temperatures and melt pool sizes, longer times in the liquid state, and more remelting events. Solidification happens via the α-phase and increasing the energy input leads to an alignment of (111) γ in building direction. Furthermore, banded microstructures respond heterogeneously to heat treatments. Heat treatment is introduced based on homogenization via phase transformation to obtain isotropic microstructures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101199
Number of pages22
Journal Advanced engineering materials
Issue number12
Early online date10 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

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© 2021 The Authors. Advanced Engineering Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

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