Residual Stress Evolution in Low-Alloyed Steel at Three Different Length Scales

Silvia Leitner, Gerald Winter, Jürgen Klarner, Thomas Antretter, Werner Ecker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Quantitative and qualitative residual stress evolution in low-alloyed steel during heat treatment is investigated on three different length scales for sourgas resistant seamless steel tubes: on the component level, on the level of interdendritic segregation and on precipitate scale. The macroscopic temperature, phase and stress evolution on the component scale result from a continuum model of the heat treatment process. The strain and temperature evolution is transferred to a mesoscopic submodel, which resolves the locally varying chemistry being a result of interdendritic segregation. Within the segregation area and the surrounding matrix precipitates form. They are categorized with respect to their tendency for formation of microscopic residual stresses. After rapid cooling macroscopic stresses up to 700 MPa may form dependent on the cooling procedure. Mesoscopic stresses up to (Formula presented.) 50 MPa form depending on the extent of segregation. Carbides and inclusions occuring in low-alloyed steel are ranked by their tendency for residual stress formation in the iron matrix. This scale bridging study gives an overview of residual stresses, their magnitude and evolution on three different length scales in low-alloyed steels and the results presented can serve as a input for steel design.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2568
Number of pages17
Journal Materials
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright: © 2023 by the authors.


  • finite element method
  • heat treatment
  • higher order stresses
  • low-alloyed steel
  • phase transformation
  • residual stresses

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