Scaling up the cold sintering process of ceramics

Abdullah Jabr, Haley N. Jones, Andrea P. Argüelles, S. Trolier-McKinstry, Clive A. Randall, Raul Bermejo Moratinos

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The cold sintering process (CSP) densifies ceramics below 300 °C by utilizing a transient phase and applied pressure. Although CSP has been employed for densifying a variety of functional systems, their structural integrity does not always reach that of conventionally sintered parts. On the example of ZnO, this study aims to eliminate processing-induced defects that compromise the strength of cold sintered materials. Ultrasonic evaluation was employed for nondestructive detection of flaws prior to mechanical testing. Load transfer misalignments and fast heating rates were found as major sources of defects, impairing the mechanical strength. Based on these findings, multiple disc-shaped samples (13 mm diameter and ∼1.3 mm thickness) were cold sintered simultaneously using precisely aligned punches and slow heating rates. The obtained homogeneous densification, high relative density (>97%) and relatively high strength (∼120 MPa), i.e. two times superior to previously reported values, demonstrates the feasibility of scaling up the CSP towards industrial implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5319-5329
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2023

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