Significance of Non-Metallic Inclusions for the Clogging Phenomenon in Continuous Casting of Steel – A Review

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Nonmetallic inclusions are well known to influence product quality and process stability in the production of steel. A process step that is very sensitive to the presence of nonmetallic inclusion (NMI) is continuous casting. Here, the so-called clogging phenomenon can occur, resulting in a distinct disruption of the casting process and decreased steel quality. The presence of nonmetallic inclusions considerably contributes to the build-up of deposits in the submerged entry nozzle provoking instabilities in the flow control system. Numerous research studies have been subject to different clogging mechanisms and related influencing parameters. Interfacial properties significantly influence the behavior of inclusions in the steel–refractory system. The present review demonstrates state of the art concerning the role of NMIs in the appearance of clogging. Particular focus is put on the wetting behavior between the different phases and their consequence for the deposition process. Industrial observations and laboratory methods are summarized and discussed; potential countermeasures are evaluated. A steel group that is especially prone to clogging are Ti- ultra low carbon (ULC) steels. An overview of the current understanding of their high clogging tendency and possible influences is presented, considering thermodynamic and interfacial aspects.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2100776
Number of pages18
JournalSteel research international
Issue number4
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Authors. Steel Research International published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • adhesion
  • clogging
  • contact angle
  • deposition
  • non-metallic inclusions
  • refractory wall
  • wetting

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