Solutions for Critical Raw Materials under Extreme Conditions: A Review

Maria Luisa Grilli, Tiziano Bellezze, Ernst Gamsjäger, Antonio Rinaldi, Pavel Novák, Sebastian Balos, Radu Robert Piticescu, Maria Letizia Ruello

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)


In Europe, many technologies with high socio-economic benefits face materials requirements that are often affected by demand-supply disruption. This paper offers an overview of critical raw materials in high value alloys and metal-matrix composites used in critical applications, such as energy, transportation and machinery manufacturing associated with extreme working conditions in terms of temperature, loading, friction, wear and corrosion. The goal is to provide perspectives about the reduction and/or substitution of selected critical raw materials: Co, W, Cr, Nb and Mg.
Original languageEnglish
Article number285
Number of pages23
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 17 Mar 2017


  • Alloys
  • Chromium
  • Cobalt
  • Composites
  • Critical raw materials
  • Extreme conditions
  • Magnesium
  • Niobium
  • Substitution
  • Tungsten

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