Technical optimization and economic evaluation of the lead bath recycling process

Benjamin Böckl

Research output: ThesisMaster's Thesis

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This master thesis presents the most important technological and economic aspects of the “lead bath recycling process” in a Top Blown Rotary Converter (TBRC). Due to limited lead resources, stringent landfill regulations, as well as environmental- and sustainability reasons, the simultaneous recovery of the contained valuable metals of lead slag from primary production processes should be promoted. The aim of the thesis is to optimize the recycling process in order to run it more efficiently and make it more competitive. To achieve this, various influencing factors on the valuable recovery efficiency are identified and tested in two series of laboratory scale- and technical scale experiments. The focus is on fluxes that affect both the melting temperature and the viscosity of the slag, leading to reduced energy consumption and an increased valuable metal recovery rate. The thesis is supported by the usage of a scanning electron microscope, where the present phases of the valuable metals in the slag are determined. The second part of the master thesis is an economic evaluation of a simulated industrial plant. Three different scenarios with two different slags as raw material are developed and calculated, due to the lack of experience about the “lead bath recycling process” in an industrial scale. The necessary data for the evaluation is provided by the results of the small-scale trials, by the calculated energy balance and by various documented assumptions that are based on existing industrial plants. The expected investment costs, operating costs and operating revenues are calculated for all scenarios and presented in this work. To calculate the total cost, the discounted net present value method is used. In addition to the technical optimization of the process, the assessment of profitability ratios is the second aim of this thesis.
Translated title of the contributionTechnische Optimierung und ökonomische Evaluierung des "Blei-Bad-Recyclingprozesses"
Original languageEnglish
  • Unger, Alois, Co-Supervisor (internal)
  • Antrekowitsch, Jürgen, Supervisor (internal)
Award date26 Jun 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

embargoed until 01-06-2020


  • lead bath recycling process
  • TBRC

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