The Behavior of Phosphorus in the Hydrogen-Based Direct Reduction—Smelter Ironmaking Route

Andreas Pfeiffer, Kathrin Thiele, Heng Zheng, Heinrich Mali, Gerald Wimmer, Johannes Schenk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Direct reduction (DR) nowadays relies on high-grade iron ores, characterized by a high total iron content and low contents of tramp elements. Since their supply is limited and cost-intensive, applying lower-grade ores is a relevant topic for the future. Therefore, the behavior of phosphorus in unbeneficiated magnetitic ore during hydrogen-based DR is studied. Phosphorus remains strongly bound as apatite whether raw or preoxidized fine ore is reduced in a fluidized bed or raw lump ore is reduced under shaft furnace conditions. That is an essential factor for the subsequent melting step, whose behavior is evaluated using thermodynamic calculations and published data from the literature. Although the smelter-reducing conditions are not ideal for phosphorus withdrawal, one can expect it to be better than the blast furnace. Combining that with the outstanding dephosphorization capacity of the basic oxygen furnace (BOF), the route DR-smelter-BOF appears optimal for processing high-phosphorus iron ores.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2300268
Number of pages9
JournalSteel research international
Volume2024 ??? Stand: 3. April 2024
Issue number??? Stand: 3. April 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by K1‐MET GmbH, a metallurgical competence center (funding number FFG No. 869295). The research program of the K1‐MET competence center is supported by the Competence Center for Excellent Technologies (COMET), the Austrian program for competence centers. COMET is funded by the Federal Ministry for Climate Action, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation, and Technology, the Federal Ministry for Labour and Economy, the provinces of Upper Austria, Tyrol, and Styria, and the Styrian Business Promotion Agency (SFG). In addition, this research work was partially financed by the industrial partners Primetals Technologies Austria GmbH, voestalpine Stahl GmbH, voestalpine Stahl Donawitz GmbH and thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG, and the scientific partner Montanuniversität Leoben. The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labor and Economy, the National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development, and the Christian Doppler Research Association.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Steel Research International published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.


  • apatite
  • direct reduction
  • electric arc furnaces
  • hydrogen direct reduced irons
  • open slag bath furnaces
  • smelters
  • submerged arc furnaces

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