Thermal stress analysis and structural optimization of ladle nozzle based on finite element simulation

Zichao Rong, Jianhong Yi, Fengxian Li, Yichun Liu, Jürgen Eckert

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The ladle nozzle is one of the most important components in metal smelting. The cracking phenomenon occurs due to excessive thermal stress, which seriously affects the performance and life of the ladle nozzle. In this paper, a new composite structure of ladle nozzle is proposed, which consists of two materials with different properties and costs. The thermal physical parameters of the material are measured by high temperature dynamic Young's modulus test method, thermal expansion test and flashing method. Based on the new structural model of the composite ladle nozzle, finite element simulation is used to combine the material ontology model, contact mechanics model and heat transfer model to study the temperature and thermal stress distribution inside the composite structure of the ladle nozzle during the casting process by taking representative key points inside the ladle nozzle. There is a large temperature gradient in the area near the casting hole, and the farther away from the casting hole, the smaller the temperature change. The ladle nozzle structure was optimized and compared with the existing ladle nozzle structure. The results show that the optimized composite structure of the ladle nozzle has significantly lowered thermal stress extremes under thermal shock, while the thermal stress distribution tends to be more uniform, which can largely reduce the chance of crack generation. This study is of great significance for improving the reliability and service life of the ladle nozzle and reducing its production cost.
Original languageEnglish
Article number045601
Number of pages15
JournalMaterials Research Express
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2022

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Publisher Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • finite elements
  • refractory
  • simulation
  • structural optimization

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