Using Iron Ore Ultra-Fines for Hydrogen-Based Fluidized Bed Direct Reduction—A Mathematical Evaluation

Thomas Wolfinger, Daniel Spreitzer, Johannes Schenk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

This mathematical evaluation focuses on iron ore ultra-fines for their use in a novel hydrogen-based fluidized bed direct reduction process. The benefits of such a process include reduced CO2 emissions and energy consumption per ton of product, lower operational and capital expenditure, and a higher oxide yield. Typical samples of iron ore ultra-fines, such as pellet feed, are given and classified for a fluidized bed. An operating field for a hydrogen-based fluidized bed direct reduction process using iron ore ultra-fines is shown in the fluidized state diagram following Reh’s approach and compared to other processes. The effects of the process conditions and the agglomeration phenomenon sticking were analyzed and evaluated with mathematical case studies. The agglomeration phenomenon sticking was identified as the most critical issue; thus, the dependencies of the fluid dynamics on the characteristic diameter were examined.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3943
Number of pages17
Journal Materials
Volume15.2022
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the K1-MET GmbH metallurgical competence center (funding number FFG No. 869295). The research program of the K1-MET competence centeris supported by the Competence Center forExcellent Technologies (COMET), the Austrian program for competence centers. COMET is funded by the Federal Ministry for Climate Action, Environment, Energy, Mobility,Innovation, andTechnology;the Federal Ministryfor Digital and EconomicAffairs;the provinces of Upper Austria, Tyrol, and Styria; andthe Styrian BusinessPromotion Agency(SFG).

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the K1-MET GmbH metallurgical competence center (funding number FFG No. 869295). The research program of the K1-MET competence center is supported by the Competence Center for Excellent Technologies (COMET), the Austrian program for competence centers. COMET is funded by the Federal Ministry for Climate Action, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation, and Technology; the Federal Ministry for Digital and Economic Affairs; the provinces of Upper Austria, Tyrol, and Styria; and the Styrian Business Promotion Agency (SFG).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • direct reduction
  • fluidized bed
  • hydrogen
  • iron ore ultra-fines
  • pellet feed
  • sticking

Cite this