Validation of Selected Optical Methods for Assessing Polyethylene (PE) Liners Used in High Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

Paweł Gąsior, Karol Wachtarczyk, Aleksander Błachut, Jerzy Kaleta, Neha Yadav, Marcin Ozga, Amelie Baron

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1 Citation (Scopus)


A polyethylene (PE) liner is the basic element in high‐pressure type 4 composite vessels designed for hydrogen or compressed natural gas (CNG) storage systems. Liner defects may result in the elimination of the whole vessel from use, which is very expensive, both at the manufacturing and exploitation stage. The goal is, therefore, the development of efficient non‐destructive testing (NDT) methods to test a liner immediately after its manufacturing, before applying a composite reinforcement. It should be noted that the current regulations, codes and standards (RC&S) do not specify liner testing methods after manufacturing. It was considered especially important to find a way of locating and assessing the size of air bubbles and inclusions, and the field of deformations in liner walls. It was also expected that these methods would be easily applicable to mass‐produced liners. The paper proposes the use of three optical methods, namely, visual inspection, digital image correlation (DIC), and optical fiber sensing based on Bragg gratings (FBG). Deformation measurements are validated with finite element analysis (FEA). The tested object was a prototype of a hydrogen liner for high‐pressure storage (700 bar). The mentioned optical methods were used to iden-tify defects and measure deformations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5667
Number of pages20
JournalApplied Sciences : open access journal
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • non‐destructive evaluation
  • PE liner
  • high-pressure vessel
  • hydrogen storage
  • optical fiber sensors
  • Digital image correlation

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