Valorisation of metallurgical residues via carbothermal reduction: A circular economy approach in the cement and iron and steel industry

Anna Krammer, Klaus Doschek-Held, Florian Roman Steindl, Katharina Weisser, Christoph Gatschlhofer, Joachim Juhart, Dominik Wohlmuth, Christoph Sorger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


The decarbonisation of the steel and cement industry is of utmost importance in tackling climate change. Hence, steel production in modern integrated steel mills will be shifted towards electric arc furnaces in the future, in turn causing dwindling supplies of blast furnace slag, which is used as a supplementary cementitious material inter alia to reduce the CO2 emissions of cement production. Achieving a sustainable circular steel and building material economy requires the valorisation of currently landfilled steel slags and investigating utilisation options for electric arc furnace slag, which is increasingly being generated. For this purpose, different metallurgical residues and by-products were treated by carbothermal reduction in an inductively heated graphite crucible and then rapidly cooled by wet granulation, yielding a slag fraction similar to granulated blast furnace slag and a metal fraction valuable as a secondary raw material. A spreadsheet-based model was developed to calculate residue combinations to accomplish target compositions of the slag and metal fractions to fulfil previously identified requirements of the targeted cementitious and ferrous products. The results demonstrate the high accuracy of the model in predicting the properties (e.g. main oxide composition) of the generated slag and metal fraction, which fulfil the needed requirements for their use as (i) a supplementary cementitious material and (ii) a secondary raw material in steel production.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
JournalWaste management & research
Issue number??? Stand: 22. April 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 Apr 2024

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© The Author(s) 2024.


  • carbothermal reduction
  • circular economy
  • CO-reduced cement
  • industrial residue
  • metal recovery
  • metallurgical residues
  • steel slags
  • Supplementary cementitious material

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