Baseline study of the Paraguayan brick production sector

Publikationen: Thesis / Studienabschlussarbeiten und HabilitationsschriftenMasterarbeit

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Baseline study of the Paraguayan brick production sector. / Arco, Carl-Heinrich.

2018.

Publikationen: Thesis / Studienabschlussarbeiten und HabilitationsschriftenMasterarbeit

Harvard

Arco, C-H 2018, 'Baseline study of the Paraguayan brick production sector', Dipl.-Ing., Montanuniversität Leoben (000).

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@phdthesis{4f05af3ee234425ba8faee94c190ef48,
title = "Baseline study of the Paraguayan brick production sector",
abstract = "In 2014, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) of the United Nations{\textquoteright} Environmental Program launched the Policy Advocacy Network for Latin America on Clean Brick Production (PAN LAC). Paraguay participates in the PAN LAC, but lacks reliable baseline data about the extent of its brick production sector. Field investigations of the author in 2017 reveal for the first time the considerable size of the brick industry of Paraguay, but also the invisibility and the high degree of informality prevalent in the sector. In total, the baseline study identified 1,631 artisanal producers that mold solid bricks by hand as well as 332 mechanized producers with at least a basic extruder or electric press incorporated in their production process. These brick manufacturers own 2,190 intermittent kilns with mostly open structures, but also 31 highly productive semi-/continuous kilns that already account for 42 percent of the annual red brick output. However, most brick producers source their raw material without a license, operate without the required environmental impact assessment, and ignore regulations. Thin clay deposits are extracted inefficiently, without mine planning and reclamation, resulting in high raw material costs and large devastated areas. The widely spread traditional kiln technologies are inefficient and artisanal production processes lead not only to unstandardized and low quality ceramic products but also to significant emissions of greenhouse gases, negatively affecting climate and health. As the number of reforestation projects is limited and no other economic viable substitute, such as mineral coal or natural gas, is available, are most combustibles originating from illegally clear-cut native forests. While the situation of the brick sector is precarious, there is strong evidence that with systematic governmental, financial and technological assistance, mitigation of the negative effects is possible, while simultaneously improving the sector{\textquoteright}s social, economic and environmental performance. Findings, proposed strategies and suggestions were presented at the 3rd PAN LAC Forum in Mexico and validated in discussion with international brick production experts.",
keywords = "Paraguay, brick, production, baseline, sustainability, clay, mining, United Nations, Pan Lac, Latin America, kilns, deforestation, Paraguay, brick, production, baseline, sustainability, clay, United Nations, PanLac, Latin America, kilns, deforestation",
author = "Carl-Heinrich Arco",
note = "embargoed until null",
year = "2018",
language = "English",
school = "Montanuniversitaet Leoben (000)",

}

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TY - THES

T1 - Baseline study of the Paraguayan brick production sector

AU - Arco, Carl-Heinrich

N1 - embargoed until null

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - In 2014, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) of the United Nations’ Environmental Program launched the Policy Advocacy Network for Latin America on Clean Brick Production (PAN LAC). Paraguay participates in the PAN LAC, but lacks reliable baseline data about the extent of its brick production sector. Field investigations of the author in 2017 reveal for the first time the considerable size of the brick industry of Paraguay, but also the invisibility and the high degree of informality prevalent in the sector. In total, the baseline study identified 1,631 artisanal producers that mold solid bricks by hand as well as 332 mechanized producers with at least a basic extruder or electric press incorporated in their production process. These brick manufacturers own 2,190 intermittent kilns with mostly open structures, but also 31 highly productive semi-/continuous kilns that already account for 42 percent of the annual red brick output. However, most brick producers source their raw material without a license, operate without the required environmental impact assessment, and ignore regulations. Thin clay deposits are extracted inefficiently, without mine planning and reclamation, resulting in high raw material costs and large devastated areas. The widely spread traditional kiln technologies are inefficient and artisanal production processes lead not only to unstandardized and low quality ceramic products but also to significant emissions of greenhouse gases, negatively affecting climate and health. As the number of reforestation projects is limited and no other economic viable substitute, such as mineral coal or natural gas, is available, are most combustibles originating from illegally clear-cut native forests. While the situation of the brick sector is precarious, there is strong evidence that with systematic governmental, financial and technological assistance, mitigation of the negative effects is possible, while simultaneously improving the sector’s social, economic and environmental performance. Findings, proposed strategies and suggestions were presented at the 3rd PAN LAC Forum in Mexico and validated in discussion with international brick production experts.

AB - In 2014, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) of the United Nations’ Environmental Program launched the Policy Advocacy Network for Latin America on Clean Brick Production (PAN LAC). Paraguay participates in the PAN LAC, but lacks reliable baseline data about the extent of its brick production sector. Field investigations of the author in 2017 reveal for the first time the considerable size of the brick industry of Paraguay, but also the invisibility and the high degree of informality prevalent in the sector. In total, the baseline study identified 1,631 artisanal producers that mold solid bricks by hand as well as 332 mechanized producers with at least a basic extruder or electric press incorporated in their production process. These brick manufacturers own 2,190 intermittent kilns with mostly open structures, but also 31 highly productive semi-/continuous kilns that already account for 42 percent of the annual red brick output. However, most brick producers source their raw material without a license, operate without the required environmental impact assessment, and ignore regulations. Thin clay deposits are extracted inefficiently, without mine planning and reclamation, resulting in high raw material costs and large devastated areas. The widely spread traditional kiln technologies are inefficient and artisanal production processes lead not only to unstandardized and low quality ceramic products but also to significant emissions of greenhouse gases, negatively affecting climate and health. As the number of reforestation projects is limited and no other economic viable substitute, such as mineral coal or natural gas, is available, are most combustibles originating from illegally clear-cut native forests. While the situation of the brick sector is precarious, there is strong evidence that with systematic governmental, financial and technological assistance, mitigation of the negative effects is possible, while simultaneously improving the sector’s social, economic and environmental performance. Findings, proposed strategies and suggestions were presented at the 3rd PAN LAC Forum in Mexico and validated in discussion with international brick production experts.

KW - Paraguay

KW - brick

KW - production

KW - baseline

KW - sustainability

KW - clay

KW - mining

KW - United Nations

KW - Pan Lac

KW - Latin America

KW - kilns

KW - deforestation

KW - Paraguay

KW - brick

KW - production

KW - baseline

KW - sustainability

KW - clay

KW - United Nations

KW - PanLac

KW - Latin America

KW - kilns

KW - deforestation

M3 - Master's Thesis

ER -