On the existence of orthorhombic martensite in a near-α titanium base alloy used for additive manufacturing

Publikationen: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftArtikelForschung(peer-reviewed)


Externe Organisationseinheiten

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • voestalpine Böhler Edelstahl GmbH & Co KG, Kapfenberg
  • Pankl Racing Systems AG, Kapfenberg
  • Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Leoben


Additive manufacturing is a state-of-the-art production technology to produce tailor-made and highly complex parts. Among various other alloys, Ti base alloys are frequently used in this manufacturing technique due to their well-balanced properties and their wide range of applications. Allotropic phases and the occurrence of athermal phase transformations are the main reasons why these alloys hold a great development potential and are the basis of extensive use. High cooling rates during manufacturing lead to martensitic phases and the formation of nanometer-sized microstructures resulting in extraordinary strength. Simultaneously, such high cooling rates cause a high amount of lattice defects and the occurrence of residual stresses, which finally may result in delamination effects and cracks. Usually, a common approach to reduce residual stresses during additive manufacturing is to decrease thermal gradients by increasing the heat input or preheating the building platform. Instead of applying the typical approaches to lower thermal gradients, this study deals with the origin of the ‘softer’ orthorhombic martensite by accelerating the solidification process. The implementation of the orthorhombic phase in bulk components was inspired by a new phase transformation herein reported for the first time in the powder material, which also validates the possible occurrence of two martensitic phases in the same alloy. Various sophisticated characterization techniques like high energy and high-temperature X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as atom probe tomography were applied to characterize this softer orthorhombic martensitic phase in detail aiming to highlight the opportunities accompanied by this new approach for additive manufacturing of titanium alloys.


FachzeitschriftJournal of alloys and compounds
Ausgabenummer15 March
Frühes Online-Datum8 Dez 2021
StatusVeröffentlicht - 15 Mär 2022