Analysis of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Means of Chemical and Electrolytic Extraction—A Review

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  • Christian Doppler Laboratory for Inclusion Metallurgy in Advanced Steelmaking, Leoben


Research on non-metallic inclusions is of critical importance, as they have a significant influence on the final properties of steel products. In this regard, the 3D analysis of inclusions isolated from steel samples allows for the accurate measurement of their chemical composition, without the influence of the steel matrix, and detailed insights into their morphology. Inclusions can be extracted from the steel sample matrix using extraction methods followed by their measurement with scanning electron microscopy. Extraction methods can be broadly classified into chemical and electrolytic analyses. There have been numerous studies documenting the different extraction methods for the isolation of different inclusion types in a range of steels. The focus of this paper is to briefly review their developments over a century up until the present period. The most relevant methods and the corresponding steels and observed inclusions are also summarized in a table which could be a useful reference for researchers in this field.


Original languageEnglish
Article number3367
Number of pages25
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2022