Analytical Proof of Origin for Raw Materials

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review


External Organisational units

  • Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)


Growing public interest in getting information on the origin of raw materials used to manufacture goods for daily life has triggered the development of concepts to increase the transparency of raw material supply chains. Analytical proofs of origin (APOs) for raw materials may support those transparency concepts by giving evidence about the origin of a specific raw material shipment. For a variety of raw materials like gemstones, TTT (tantalum, tin, tungsten) minerals, and others, APOs have been developed. The identification of features that distinguish different origins, databases of those features from reliable reference samples, and a data evaluation strategy adopted to the envisaged application scenario are the key aspects of APO methods. Here, an overview is given on APO methods developed for different raw materials and application cases.


Original languageEnglish
Article number461
Number of pages16
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021