Environmental Investigations in the West Tahta Region, Upper Egypt: A Hydrogeochemical, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Study
Research output: Thesis › Doctoral Thesis
The west Tahta area lies in Upper Egypt and is characterized by a dry climate and a scarcity of surface water. This area has been subjected to an extensive reclamation project over the past few years. The reclamation project has lead to changes in both the agricultural and urban areas, as well as to changes in the quantity and quality of the groundwater. Groundwater is the main source of water in the region due to infrequent rain and no near by sources of surface water. In this study we used remote sensing techniques to detect the changes in the agricultural area, the urban area, and the River Nile between 1987 and 2009. 29 vertical electrical sounding was done to evaluate the geometry of the aquifer. We collected and analyzed 34 water samples (6 of surface water and 28 of groundwater) to determine the source and the type of groundwater and evaluate these water samples for different purposes. In the last part we compare the groundwater samples collected and analyzed by RIGW in 1989 and groundwater samples collected and analyzed in 2011. The total increase in the agricultural area from 1987 to 2009 is about 1785.9 hectare with an average annual growth rate of 81.2 ha/year. The total increase in urban area from 1987 to 2009 is about 223.1ha with an average annual growth rate 101.45 ha/year. From the geophysical study, we found that the area under investigation represented a geophysical four-layer case. The first layer (surface layer) is represented by wadi deposits in the west and clay in the east. The second layer is represented by wet sand. The third layer acts as the main aquifer in the study area and is composed of sand and gravel. This layer has resistivity ranging from 28 to 99 ohm, and its thickness ranges from 18 to 144m. The fourth layer acts as the base of the aquifer and is composed of clay with low resistivity. The recharge of the aquifer is mainly from surface water, especially from the irrigation canals, which play a major role in the configuration of the water table. The discharge of this aquifer takes place through evaporation. The majority of the studied surface water appears to be suitable for drinking. Most of the groundwater collected in 1989 is also suitable for drinking. However, the majority of the 2011 groundwater has impermissible levels and major ions. Most of the 1989 groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purposes, while only about half of the 2011 groundwater samples are. The other half is (bad or) unsuitable due to its high salinity.
|Translated title of the contribution||Umweltrelevante Untersuchungen in der West Tahta Region, Ober-Ägypten: Eine Hydrogeochemische, Geophysikalische und Fernerkundungs -Studie|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|