Gem Corundum Deposits of Greece: Geology, Mineralogy and Genesis

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Gem Corundum Deposits of Greece: Geology, Mineralogy and Genesis. / Voudouris, Panagiotis; Mavrogonatos, Costantinos ; Graham, Ian; Giluiani, Gaston; Melfos, Vasilios ; Karampelas, Stefanos; Karantoni , Vilelmini ; Wang , Kandy ; Tarantola , Alexandre ; Zaw , Khin; Meffre , Sebastien ; Klemme , Stephan ; Berndt , Jasper ; Heidrich, Stefanie; Zaccarini, Federica; Fallick , Anthony ; Tsortanidis, Maria ; Lampridis, Andreas .

In: Minerals, Vol. 9.2019, No. 1, 49, 01.2019, p. 1-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Voudouris, P, Mavrogonatos, C, Graham, I, Giluiani, G, Melfos, V, Karampelas, S, Karantoni , V, Wang , K, Tarantola , A, Zaw , K, Meffre , S, Klemme , S, Berndt , J, Heidrich, S, Zaccarini, F, Fallick , A, Tsortanidis, M & Lampridis, A 2019, 'Gem Corundum Deposits of Greece: Geology, Mineralogy and Genesis' Minerals, vol. 9.2019, no. 1, 49, pp. 1-50. https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010049

APA

Voudouris, P., Mavrogonatos, C., Graham, I., Giluiani, G., Melfos, V., Karampelas, S., ... Lampridis, A. (2019). Gem Corundum Deposits of Greece: Geology, Mineralogy and Genesis. Minerals, 9.2019(1), 1-50. [49]. https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010049

Vancouver

Voudouris P, Mavrogonatos, C, Graham I, Giluiani G, Melfos V, Karampelas S et al. Gem Corundum Deposits of Greece: Geology, Mineralogy and Genesis. Minerals. 2019 Jan;9.2019(1):1-50. 49. https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010049

Author

Voudouris, Panagiotis ; Mavrogonatos, Costantinos ; Graham, Ian ; Giluiani, Gaston ; Melfos, Vasilios ; Karampelas, Stefanos ; Karantoni , Vilelmini ; Wang , Kandy ; Tarantola , Alexandre ; Zaw , Khin ; Meffre , Sebastien ; Klemme , Stephan ; Berndt , Jasper ; Heidrich, Stefanie ; Zaccarini, Federica ; Fallick , Anthony ; Tsortanidis, Maria ; Lampridis, Andreas . / Gem Corundum Deposits of Greece: Geology, Mineralogy and Genesis. In: Minerals. 2019 ; Vol. 9.2019, No. 1. pp. 1-50.

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@article{38dac57c02904a269b8bc0603ea36db5,
title = "Gem Corundum Deposits of Greece: Geology, Mineralogy and Genesis",
abstract = "Greece contains several gem corundum deposits set within diverse geological settings, mostly within the Rhodope (Xanthi and Drama areas) and Attico-Cycladic (Naxos and Ikaria islands) tectono-metamorphic units. In the Xanthi area, the sapphire (pink, blue to purple) deposits are stratiform, occurring within marble layers alternating with amphibolites. Deep red rubies in the Paranesti-Drama area are restricted to boudinaged lenses of Al-rich metapyroxenites alternating with amphibolites and gneisses. Both occurrences are oriented parallel to the ultra-high pressure/high pressure (UHP/HP) Nestos suture zone. On central Naxos Island, colored sapphires are associated with desilicated granite pegmatites intruding ultramafic lithologies (plumasites), occurring either within the pegmatites themselves or associated metasomatic reaction zones. In contrast, on southern Naxos and Ikaria Islands, blue sapphires occur in extensional fissures within Mesozoic metabauxites hosted in marbles. Mineral inclusions in corundums are in equilibrium and/or postdate corundum crystallization and comprise: spinel and pargasite (Paranesti), spinel, zircon (Xanthi), margarite, zircon, apatite, diaspore, phlogopite and chlorite (Naxos) and chloritoid, ilmenite, hematite, ulvospinel, rutile and zircon (Ikaria). The main chromophore elements within the Greek corundums show a wide range in concentration: the Fe contents vary from (average values) 1099 ppm in the blue sapphires of Xanthi, 424 ppm in the pink sapphires of Xanthi, 2654 ppm for Paranesti rubies, 4326 ppm for the Ikaria sapphires, 3706 for southern Naxos blue sapphires, 4777 for purple and 3301 for pink sapphire from Naxos plumasite, and finally 4677 to 1532 for blue to colorless sapphires from Naxos plumasites, respectively. The Ti concentrations (average values) are very low in rubies from Paranesti (41 ppm), with values of 2871 ppm and 509 in the blue and pink sapphires of Xanthi, respectively, of 1263 ppm for the Ikaria blue sapphires, and 520 ppm, 181 ppm in Naxos purple, pink sapphires, respectively. The blue to colorless sapphires from Naxos plumasites contain 1944 to 264 ppm Ti, respectively. The very high Ti contents of the Xanthi blue sapphires may reflect submicroscopic rutile inclusions. The Cr (average values) ranges from 4 to 691 ppm in the blue, purple and pink colored corundums from Naxos plumasite, is quite fixed (222 ppm) for Ikaria sapphires, ranges from 90 to 297 ppm in the blue and pink sapphires from Xanthi, reaches 9142 ppm in the corundums of Paranesti, with highest values of 15,347 ppm in deep red colored varieties. Each occurrence has both unique mineral assemblage and trace element chemistry (with variable Fe/Mg, Ga/Mg, Ga/Cr and Fe/Ti ratios). Additionally, oxygen isotope compositions confirm their geological typology, i.e., with, respectively δ 18 O of 4.9 ± 0.2‰ for sapphire in plumasite, 20.5‰ for sapphire in marble and 1‰ for ruby in mafics. The fluid inclusions study evidenced water free CO 2 dominant fluids with traces of CH 4 or N 2 , and low CO 2 densities (0.46 and 0.67 g/cm 3 ), which were probably trapped after the metamorphic peak. The Paranesti, Xanthi and central Naxos corundum deposits can be classified as metamorphic sensu stricto (s.s.) and metasomatic, respectively, those from southern Naxos and Ikaria display atypical magmatic signature indicating a hydrothermal origin. Greek corundums are characterized by wide color variation, homogeneity of the color hues, and transparency, and can be considered as potential gemstones.",
author = "Panagiotis Voudouris and Costantinos Mavrogonatos, and Ian Graham and Gaston Giluiani and Vasilios Melfos and Stefanos Karampelas and Vilelmini Karantoni and Kandy Wang and Alexandre Tarantola and Khin Zaw and Sebastien Meffre and Stephan Klemme and Jasper Berndt and Stefanie Heidrich and Federica Zaccarini and Anthony Fallick and Maria Tsortanidis and Andreas Lampridis",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.3390/min9010049",
language = "English",
volume = "9.2019",
pages = "1--50",
journal = "Minerals",
issn = "2075-163X",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "1",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Gem Corundum Deposits of Greece: Geology, Mineralogy and Genesis

AU - Voudouris, Panagiotis

AU - Mavrogonatos,, Costantinos

AU - Graham, Ian

AU - Giluiani, Gaston

AU - Melfos, Vasilios

AU - Karampelas, Stefanos

AU - Karantoni , Vilelmini

AU - Wang , Kandy

AU - Tarantola , Alexandre

AU - Zaw , Khin

AU - Meffre , Sebastien

AU - Klemme , Stephan

AU - Berndt , Jasper

AU - Heidrich, Stefanie

AU - Zaccarini, Federica

AU - Fallick , Anthony

AU - Tsortanidis, Maria

AU - Lampridis, Andreas

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - Greece contains several gem corundum deposits set within diverse geological settings, mostly within the Rhodope (Xanthi and Drama areas) and Attico-Cycladic (Naxos and Ikaria islands) tectono-metamorphic units. In the Xanthi area, the sapphire (pink, blue to purple) deposits are stratiform, occurring within marble layers alternating with amphibolites. Deep red rubies in the Paranesti-Drama area are restricted to boudinaged lenses of Al-rich metapyroxenites alternating with amphibolites and gneisses. Both occurrences are oriented parallel to the ultra-high pressure/high pressure (UHP/HP) Nestos suture zone. On central Naxos Island, colored sapphires are associated with desilicated granite pegmatites intruding ultramafic lithologies (plumasites), occurring either within the pegmatites themselves or associated metasomatic reaction zones. In contrast, on southern Naxos and Ikaria Islands, blue sapphires occur in extensional fissures within Mesozoic metabauxites hosted in marbles. Mineral inclusions in corundums are in equilibrium and/or postdate corundum crystallization and comprise: spinel and pargasite (Paranesti), spinel, zircon (Xanthi), margarite, zircon, apatite, diaspore, phlogopite and chlorite (Naxos) and chloritoid, ilmenite, hematite, ulvospinel, rutile and zircon (Ikaria). The main chromophore elements within the Greek corundums show a wide range in concentration: the Fe contents vary from (average values) 1099 ppm in the blue sapphires of Xanthi, 424 ppm in the pink sapphires of Xanthi, 2654 ppm for Paranesti rubies, 4326 ppm for the Ikaria sapphires, 3706 for southern Naxos blue sapphires, 4777 for purple and 3301 for pink sapphire from Naxos plumasite, and finally 4677 to 1532 for blue to colorless sapphires from Naxos plumasites, respectively. The Ti concentrations (average values) are very low in rubies from Paranesti (41 ppm), with values of 2871 ppm and 509 in the blue and pink sapphires of Xanthi, respectively, of 1263 ppm for the Ikaria blue sapphires, and 520 ppm, 181 ppm in Naxos purple, pink sapphires, respectively. The blue to colorless sapphires from Naxos plumasites contain 1944 to 264 ppm Ti, respectively. The very high Ti contents of the Xanthi blue sapphires may reflect submicroscopic rutile inclusions. The Cr (average values) ranges from 4 to 691 ppm in the blue, purple and pink colored corundums from Naxos plumasite, is quite fixed (222 ppm) for Ikaria sapphires, ranges from 90 to 297 ppm in the blue and pink sapphires from Xanthi, reaches 9142 ppm in the corundums of Paranesti, with highest values of 15,347 ppm in deep red colored varieties. Each occurrence has both unique mineral assemblage and trace element chemistry (with variable Fe/Mg, Ga/Mg, Ga/Cr and Fe/Ti ratios). Additionally, oxygen isotope compositions confirm their geological typology, i.e., with, respectively δ 18 O of 4.9 ± 0.2‰ for sapphire in plumasite, 20.5‰ for sapphire in marble and 1‰ for ruby in mafics. The fluid inclusions study evidenced water free CO 2 dominant fluids with traces of CH 4 or N 2 , and low CO 2 densities (0.46 and 0.67 g/cm 3 ), which were probably trapped after the metamorphic peak. The Paranesti, Xanthi and central Naxos corundum deposits can be classified as metamorphic sensu stricto (s.s.) and metasomatic, respectively, those from southern Naxos and Ikaria display atypical magmatic signature indicating a hydrothermal origin. Greek corundums are characterized by wide color variation, homogeneity of the color hues, and transparency, and can be considered as potential gemstones.

AB - Greece contains several gem corundum deposits set within diverse geological settings, mostly within the Rhodope (Xanthi and Drama areas) and Attico-Cycladic (Naxos and Ikaria islands) tectono-metamorphic units. In the Xanthi area, the sapphire (pink, blue to purple) deposits are stratiform, occurring within marble layers alternating with amphibolites. Deep red rubies in the Paranesti-Drama area are restricted to boudinaged lenses of Al-rich metapyroxenites alternating with amphibolites and gneisses. Both occurrences are oriented parallel to the ultra-high pressure/high pressure (UHP/HP) Nestos suture zone. On central Naxos Island, colored sapphires are associated with desilicated granite pegmatites intruding ultramafic lithologies (plumasites), occurring either within the pegmatites themselves or associated metasomatic reaction zones. In contrast, on southern Naxos and Ikaria Islands, blue sapphires occur in extensional fissures within Mesozoic metabauxites hosted in marbles. Mineral inclusions in corundums are in equilibrium and/or postdate corundum crystallization and comprise: spinel and pargasite (Paranesti), spinel, zircon (Xanthi), margarite, zircon, apatite, diaspore, phlogopite and chlorite (Naxos) and chloritoid, ilmenite, hematite, ulvospinel, rutile and zircon (Ikaria). The main chromophore elements within the Greek corundums show a wide range in concentration: the Fe contents vary from (average values) 1099 ppm in the blue sapphires of Xanthi, 424 ppm in the pink sapphires of Xanthi, 2654 ppm for Paranesti rubies, 4326 ppm for the Ikaria sapphires, 3706 for southern Naxos blue sapphires, 4777 for purple and 3301 for pink sapphire from Naxos plumasite, and finally 4677 to 1532 for blue to colorless sapphires from Naxos plumasites, respectively. The Ti concentrations (average values) are very low in rubies from Paranesti (41 ppm), with values of 2871 ppm and 509 in the blue and pink sapphires of Xanthi, respectively, of 1263 ppm for the Ikaria blue sapphires, and 520 ppm, 181 ppm in Naxos purple, pink sapphires, respectively. The blue to colorless sapphires from Naxos plumasites contain 1944 to 264 ppm Ti, respectively. The very high Ti contents of the Xanthi blue sapphires may reflect submicroscopic rutile inclusions. The Cr (average values) ranges from 4 to 691 ppm in the blue, purple and pink colored corundums from Naxos plumasite, is quite fixed (222 ppm) for Ikaria sapphires, ranges from 90 to 297 ppm in the blue and pink sapphires from Xanthi, reaches 9142 ppm in the corundums of Paranesti, with highest values of 15,347 ppm in deep red colored varieties. Each occurrence has both unique mineral assemblage and trace element chemistry (with variable Fe/Mg, Ga/Mg, Ga/Cr and Fe/Ti ratios). Additionally, oxygen isotope compositions confirm their geological typology, i.e., with, respectively δ 18 O of 4.9 ± 0.2‰ for sapphire in plumasite, 20.5‰ for sapphire in marble and 1‰ for ruby in mafics. The fluid inclusions study evidenced water free CO 2 dominant fluids with traces of CH 4 or N 2 , and low CO 2 densities (0.46 and 0.67 g/cm 3 ), which were probably trapped after the metamorphic peak. The Paranesti, Xanthi and central Naxos corundum deposits can be classified as metamorphic sensu stricto (s.s.) and metasomatic, respectively, those from southern Naxos and Ikaria display atypical magmatic signature indicating a hydrothermal origin. Greek corundums are characterized by wide color variation, homogeneity of the color hues, and transparency, and can be considered as potential gemstones.

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U2 - 10.3390/min9010049

DO - 10.3390/min9010049

M3 - Article

VL - 9.2019

SP - 1

EP - 50

JO - Minerals

JF - Minerals

SN - 2075-163X

IS - 1

M1 - 49

ER -