Hierarchical nature of hydrogen-based direct reduction of iron oxides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Authors

  • Yan Ma
  • Isnaldi R. Souza Filho
  • Yang Bai
  • Fabrice Patisson
  • Arik Beck
  • Jeroen A. van Bokhoven
  • Marc G. Willinger
  • Kejiang Li
  • Degang Xie
  • Dirk Ponge
  • Stefan Zaefferer
  • Baptiste Gault
  • Jaber R. Mianroodi
  • Dierk Raabe

Organisational units

External Organisational units

  • Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH
  • Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
  • Paul Scherrer Institut
  • University of Science and Technology Beijing
  • Xi’an Jiaotong University
  • Imperial College London
  • LabEx DAMAS

Abstract

Fossil-free ironmaking is indispensable for reducing massive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the steel industry. Hydrogen-based direct reduction (HyDR) is among the most attractive solutions for green ironmaking, with high technology readiness. The underlying mechanisms governing this process are characterized by a complex interaction of several chemical (phase transformations), physical (transport), and mechanical (stresses) phenomena. Their interplay leads to rich microstructures, characterized by a hierarchy of defects ranging across several orders of magnitude in length, including vacancies, dislocations, internal interfaces, and free surfaces in the form of cracks and pores. These defects can all act as reaction, nucleation, and diffusion sites, shaping the overall reduction kinetics. A clear understanding of the roles and interactions of these dynamically-evolving nano-/microstructure features is missing. Gaining better insights into these effects could enable improved access to the microstructure-based design of more efficient HyDR methods, with potentially high impact on the urgently needed decarbonization in the steel industry.

Details

Original languageEnglish
Article number114571
Number of pages7
JournalScripta Materialia
Volume213.2022
Issue numberMay
Early online date3 Feb 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022