Naldrettite (Pd2Sb): A new find in Brazil and comparison with worldwide occurrences
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Naldrettite (Pd 2Sb) is a PGM discovered in 2005 in Mesamax Northwest deposit, Ungava region, Quebec, Canada. Before and after its approval, PGM with the naldrettite type composition have been reported from a number of localities worldwide. Most frequently, naldrettite has been documented in magmatic Ni–Cu–PGE sulfide deposits, hydrothermal veins in porphyry coppers of the Cu–Au type, and PGE deposits of Alaskan-type zoned intrusions. Naldrettite has been occasionally found in metasomatic Sb–As sulfide ore, metamorphic Ni–oxide ore, and podiform chromitites, although these occurrences have not been fully constrained by solid chemical analyses or paragenetic reconstruction. In this paper we report the first discovery of naldrettite in Brazil. This new finding occurs in a chromitite sample collected in the Luanga Complex, a Neo-archaean layered intrusion in the Carajás Mineral Province. Paragenetic association with alteration assemblages (ferrianchromite, Fe-hydroxides, chlorite) suggests precipitation of naldrettite from metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. The average composition of the Luanga sample (Pd 1.76Pt 0.24) R2.00(Sb 0.57As 0.43) R1.00 shows major substitution of Pt and As. These elements were derived from the breakdown of primary sperrylite, and were incorporated in naldrettite deposited by percolating fluids, at temperature below 350 8C (maximum temperature registered by the crystallization of associated chlorite). An overview of documented occurrences indicates that naldrettite can form in a variety of igneous rocks (ultramafic, mafic, felsic), even involving minimal concentrations of Pd and Sb. Crystallization of naldrettite generally occurs in the post-magmatic stage due to the activity of hydrothermal fluids containing volatile species Sb, As, Bi, Te, and Pd due to its higher mobility compared with the other PGE. A major issue concerns the origin of fluids that can be: (1) ‘‘residual’’, after the main crystallization of the host magma, (2) ‘‘metamorphic’’, during regional metamorphism or serpentinization, and (3) ‘‘metasomatic’’, emanating from an exotic magma intrusion. The combination of two or three of these factors is the most likely process observed in the naldrettite-bearing complexes.