Out-of-plane permeability measurement for reinforcement textiles: A benchmark exercise

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


  • A. Yong
  • Alper Aktas
  • David May
  • Andreas Endruweit
  • S. G. Advani
  • Pascal Hubert
  • S.G. Abaimov
  • Dilmurat Abliz
  • I. Akhatov
  • M. A. Ali
  • T. Allen
  • David C. Berg
  • S. Bickerton
  • C. Brauner
  • D. Brütsch
  • B. Caglar
  • P. Causse
  • A. Chiminelli
  • A. Cohades
  • S. Comas-Cardona
  • M. Danzi
  • J. Dittmann
  • C. Dransfeld
  • P. Ermanni
  • J. A. Garcia-Manrique
  • V. Grishaev
  • A. Guilloux
  • M. Hancioglu
  • W. Harazi
  • T. Herman
  • W. Huang
  • M. A. Kabachi
  • A. Keller
  • K. Kind
  • M. Laspalas
  • O. V. Lebedev
  • M. Lizaranzu
  • A. Long
  • K. Masania
  • V. Michaud
  • P. Middendorf
  • D. Salvatori
  • R. Schubnel
  • N. Sharp
  • E. M. Sozer
  • J. Thomas
  • F. Trochu
  • R. Umer
  • J. Valette
  • J. H. Wang
  • B. Willenbacher

Organisational units

External Organisational units

  • Institute of Polymer Engineering, FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
  • Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Universitat Politecnica de Valencia
  • Université de Technologie de Compiègne
  • University of Auckland
  • Ecole Polytechnique Montreal
  • ITAINNOVA Instituto Tecnológico de Aragón
  • TENSYL, France
  • National Physical Laboratory
  • Institut für Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH
  • University of Nottingham
  • University of Delaware
  • McGill University
  • Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology
  • Department of Polymer Materials and Plastics Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology
  • Khalifa University
  • University of Montréal, École Polytechnique, Montréal, Canada
  • University of Nantes
  • Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
  • Institute for Physical Metallurgy, University of Stuttgart
  • FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Switzerland
  • Koç University
  • Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München
  • Institut de Soudure Group
  • Institut de Soudure Groupe
  • School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University
  • Wuhan University of Technology


The out-of-plane permeability of two glass fibre fabrics was measured by 26 institutions using silicone oil as a test fluid. Participants in this study were free to select the test procedure, specimen dimensions and data analysis method, provided that testing was carried out at three target fibre volume fractions, 46%, 50% and 54%. While results showed a variability of two orders of magnitude between participants, most values were within a significantly narrower band. A majority of participants used 1D saturated test method. A few selected 1D unsaturated and 3D unsaturated flow method which gave very similar results. Focusing on analysis of data and results of 1D saturated flow measurements, results are not conclusive, but they are consistent with number of layers in a specimen, fibre volume fraction, injection pressure and sealing of specimen edges all having an effect on the measured permeability. Specifying limits for these parameters is expected to result in reduced scatter in measured permeability.


Original languageEnglish
Article number106480
Number of pages16
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
Issue numberSeptember
Early online date23 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021